The standards presented below were collected by members of the ISO TC 285 Fuels Task Group. These standards were identified as potentially pertaining to the work being conducted by ISO TC 285. The standards can be sorted in three ways: filter by column, search the entire table (search box in the upper right corner), or filter each column by term using the boxes at the footer of the table. The content of this table can be exported in either CSV or PDF formats.

If you have additional standards or documents you feel might be appropriate for inclusion in this table please contact Dr. Christian L’Orange.

Standard Number / Document NameApplicable FuelsFuel CharacteristicsStandard Location (url)Summary of StandardMeta Data/Key Terms
Standard Number / Document NameApplicable FuelsFuel CharacteristicsStandard Location (url)Summary of StandardMeta Data/Key Terms
ASTM E1757Wood Charcoal Coal/Peat Ag Residue Pellets/Pressed Logs Briquettes Dung BiofuelsHeating Value Volatile MatterStandard method for preparing fuel for composition analysisComposition, handling, chemical analysis
ASTM E1690 - Standard Test Method for Determination of Ethanol Extractives in BiomassWood Ag Residue Liquid FuelsHeating Value Value Chain (storage, handling, etc) Alcohol Content Volatile MatterEvaluating ethanol potential for fuelsComposition, handling, ethanol, liquid fuels
ASTM D7459 -Standard Test Method for Bulk Density of Densified Particulate Biomass FuelsPellets/Pressed Logs BriquettesDensity Value Chain (storage, handling, etc) SizeDetermining bulk density of densified fuelspellets, storage, transportation
ASTM D5865 -Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Coal and CokeCoal/PeatHeating Value Volatile MatterMethod to determine heating value of coal and cokeLHV, heating value, coal, coke, composition
ASTM D5868 - Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific and Ash Value of Waste MaterialsAg ResidueHeating Value Volatile MatterHeating value and ash composition of waste materialswaste, agricultural, LHV, heating value
ASTM E870 - Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Wood FuelsWoodHeating Value Volatile MatterDetermining heating value of wood fuelsLHV, heating value
ASTM E711 - Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Refuse-Derived Fuel by the Bomb CalorimeterAg ResidueHeating Value Volatile MatterEnergy content of waste derived productsLHV, energy content, agricultural waste
ASTM E777 - Standard Test Method for Carbon and Hydrogen in the Analysis Sample of Refuse-Derived FuelAg ResidueHeating Value Volatile MatterCarbon and hydrogen content in waste derived fuelsLHV, carbon, nitrogen, heating value
ASTM E871 - Standard Test Method for Moisture Analysis of Particulate Wood FuelsWood Pellets/Pressed Logs BriquettesMoisture ContentDetermining moisture content of particulate woodmoisture content, MC, water
ASTM E872 - Standard Test Method for Volatile Matter in the Analysis of Particulate Wood FuelsWood Pellets/Pressed Logs BriquettesHeating Value Volatile MatterVolatile matter in particulate woodLHV, energy
ASTM E1358 - Standard Test Method for Determination of Moisture Content of Particulate Wood Fuels Using a Microwave OvenWood Pellets/Pressed Logs BriquettesMoisture ContentMoisture content of particulate wood using a microwaveMC, moisture content, microwave
ASTM D7544 - Standard Specification for Pyrolysis Liquid BiofuelLiquid Fuels BiofuelsHeating Value Moisture ContentHow to define pyrolysis liquid fuelspyrolysis, energy content, gasification
ISO 17225-2 - Solid biofuels - Fuel specifications and classes - Part 2: Graded wood pelletsWood Pellets/Pressed Logs BriquettesValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)Classifying and categorizing wood pelletspellets, classification
ISO 17225-4 - Solid biofuels - Fuel specifications and classes - Part 4: Graded wood chipsWood Ag Residue Pellets/Pressed Logs BriquettesValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)Classification and categorizing wood chipswood chips, classification
ISO 17225-3 - Solid biofuels - Fuel specifications and classes - Part 3: Graded wood briquettesWood Pellets/Pressed Logs BriquettesValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)Classification and categorization of pressed wood briquetteswood briquettes, manufactured fuels
ASTM D 3176 - Standard Practice for Collection and Preparation of Coke Samples for Laboratory AnalysisCoal/PeatValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)Preparing coke samples for analysislaboratory method, sample preparation
ASTM D1102 - Standard Test Method for Ash in WoodWoodMiscAsh in woodComposition, chemical
ASTM E775 - Standard Test Methods for Total Sulfur in the Analysis Sample of Refuse-Derived FuelAg ResidueMiscSulfur composition in waste fuelschemical composition, sulfur
ASTM D1762 - Standard Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Wood CharcoalCharcoalHeating Value MiscChemical composition of wood charcoalComposition, charcoal, chemical analysis
ASTM D5759 - Standard Guide for Characterization of Coal Fly Ash and Clean Coal Combustion Fly Ash for Potential UsesCoal/PeatValue Chain (storage, handling, etc) MiscAsh composition of coal ash and potential secondary useschemical composition, waste stream value, ash
ASTM D121 -Standard Terminology of Coal and CokeCoal/PeatMiscTerminologyterminology
ASTM D7582 - Standard Test Methods for Proximate Analysis of Coal and Coke by Macro Thermogravimetric AnalysisCharcoal Coal/PeatHeating Value MiscProximate analysis of coal and cokechemical composition, proximate analysis
ASTM D3176 - Standard Practice for Ultimate Analysis of Coal and CokeCoal/PeatHeating Value MiscUltimate analysis for coal and cokechemical composition, ultimate analysis
EN 16214-1Wood Charcoal Ag Residue Pellets/Pressed Logs Liquid Fuels BriquettesValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)This European Standard defines the terminology to be used in the field of sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications.Defines relevant terms and definitions used in the European Commission Directive 2009/28/EC [1], 2009/30/EC [2] and other European regulations.
DIN EN 15234-1WoodValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)"Solid biofuels - Fuel quality assurance - Part 1: General requirements
The overall aim of EN 15234 multipart standard is to guarantee the solid biofuel quality through the whole supply chain, from the origin to the delivery of the solid biofuel and provide adequate confidence that specified quality requirements are fulfilled"
Quality standards for solid biofuels
DIN EN 15234-2Pellets/Pressed Logs BriquettesValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)Fuel quality assurance - Part 2: Wood pellets for non-industrial useQuality assurance wood pellets
DIN EN 15234-3Pellets/Pressed Logs BriquettesValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)Fuel quality assurance - Part 3: Wood briquettes for non-industrial useQuality assurance along the value chain
DIN EN 15234-4Pellets/Pressed Logs BriquettesValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)Fuel quality assurance - Part 4: Wood chips for non-industrial useQuality assurance along the value chain
DIN EN 15234-5WoodValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)Fuel quality assurance - Part 5: Firewood for non-industrial useQuality assurance along the value chain
ISO 20905:2004Coal/PeatMoisture Content
Misc
LinkEvaluate ratio of moisture and dust in coalFuel characteristics, moisture, MC
ISO 13909-4:2001Charcoal
Coal/Peat
Density
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)
LinkStandard method for preparing fuel samplesFuel preparation
ISO/DIS 18122 - Solid Biofuels -- Determination of ash contentWood
Charcoal
Coal/Peat
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs
MiscLinkDetermination of ash content in biomass fuelsAsh, composition
ISO/AWI 20023 - Solid biofuels -- Safety of solid biofuel pellets -- Safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applicationsPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
LinkSafe storage and handling of wood pelletsSafety, storage, pellets
ISO 20846:2011 Petroleum products -- Determination of sulfur content of automotive fuels -- Ultraviolet fluorescence methodEthanol Liquid/Gels Fuels
Biofuels
Chemical Composition
Chemical Additives
Laboratory Testing
LinkUV laboratory method of determining sulfur content of liquid fuelschemical composition ethanol sulfur
ASTME820
ISO 11760:2005 - Classification of coalsCharcoal
Coal/Peat
Heating Value/Calorific Value
Density/Bulk Density
Moisture Content
Ash Content
LinkThis International Standard describes a simple classification system for coals providing
— guidance on the selection of the appropriate ISO standard procedures for the analyses and testing of coals,
— international comparison of coals in terms of some key characteristics,
— descriptive categorization of coals.
coal, classification, characterization, terminology
ISO 16993:2015 - Solid Biofuels -- Conversion of analytical results from one basis to anotherWood
Charcoal
Coal/Peat
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Briquettes
Dung
Heating Value/Calorific Value
Density/Bulk Density
Moisture Content
Misc
Ash Content
Chemical Composition
LinkMethodology of converting from one basis of measurement to another. For example - for converting from air-dried to dry, ash free basis

Includes method of conducting integrity checks.
Data analysis, calculations, data validity
NY/T1878—2010 Densified solid biofuel technical conditionsPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)Densified solid biofuel technical conditions
NY/T1879—2010 Densified solid biofuel sampling methodsPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsLaboratory TestingPreparing samples for analysis
NY/T1879—2010 Densified solid biofuel sampling methodsPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsLaboratory TestingPreparing samples for analysis
NY/T1881.1—2010 Densified solid biofuel test methods - Part 1: GeneralPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsLaboratory TestingPreparing samples for analysis
NY/T1881.2—2010 Densificed solid biofuel test methods - Part 2: Total MoisturePellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsMoisture ContentDetermination of Moisture content in biomass fuelsMoisture
NY/T1881.3—2010 Densified solid biofuel test methods - Part 3: general analysis of water samplesPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsMoisture ContentDetermination of Moisture content in biomass fuelsMoisture
NY/T1881.4—2010 Densified solid biofuel test methods - Part 4: VolatilePellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsVolatile MatterDetermination of Volatile content in biomass fuelsVolatile, volatiles
NY/T1881.5—2010 Densified solid biofuel test methods - Part 5: AshPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsAsh ContentDetermination of ash content in biomass fuelsAsh
NY/T1881.6—2010 Densified solid biofuel test methods - Part 6: Bulk DensityPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsDensity/Bulk DensityDetermination of Bulk Density of biomass fuelsBulk density
NY/T1881.7—2010 Densified solid biofuel test methods Part 7: DensityPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsDensity/Bulk DensityDetermination of Density of biomass fuelsDensity
NY/T1881.8—2010 Densified solid biofuel test methods - Part 8: mechanical durabilityPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Laboratory Testing
Determination of mechanical durability of biomass fuelsmechanical durability
NY/T1882.—2010 Densified solid biofuel molding equipment technical conditionsPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)Densified solid biofuel molding equipment technical conditions
NY/T1883-2010 Densified solid biofuel molding equipment test methodsPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsLaboratory Testingmolding equipment test methodsmolding equipment
GB/T 211-2007 煤中全水分的测定方法 Total Moisture of the Coal test methodsCoal/PeatMoisture ContentDetermination of Moisture content in CoalMoisture
GB/T 212-2001 煤的工业分析方法 Proximate analysis of the Coal test methodsCoal/PeatChemical CompositionDetermination of Proximate of the CoalProximate analysis
GB/T 213-2003 煤的发热量测定方法 LHV of the Coal test methodsCoal/PeatHeating Value/Calorific ValueDetermination of LHV of CoalLHV
GB/T 214-2007 煤中全硫的测定方法 Sulphur of the Coal test methodsCoal/PeatChemical CompositionDetermination of S content in CoalS
GB/T 216-2003 煤中磷的测定方法 Phosphorus of the Coal test methodsCoal/PeatChemical CompositionDetermination of P content in CoalP
GB/T 219-1996 煤灰熔融性的测定方法 The fusibility of coal ash test methodsCoal/PeatMelting Point/Transition PointsDetermination of fusibility of coal ashfusibility of coal ash
GB 474-1996 煤样的制备方法 Sample preparation methods of the Coal test methodsCoal/PeatLaboratory TestingPreparing samples for analysisLaboratory Testing
GB/T 476-2001 煤的元素分析方法 Ultimate analysis of the Coal test methodsCoal/PeatChemical CompositionDetermination of Ultimate Analysis of the CoalUltimate analysis
SANS 448 Ethanol gel fuelEthanol/Liquid/Gels FuelsHeating Value/Calorific Value
Moisture Content
Chemical Composition
Alcohol Content
Chemical Additives
Minimum qualification for homologation of a fuel productDefinition of ethanol gel fuel
SANS 1913:2013 Illuminating ParaffinEthanol/Liquid/Gels FuelsHeating Value/Calorific Value
Chemical Composition
Minimum qualification for homologation of a paraffin fuel productDefinition illuminating paraffin fuel
ISO/AWI 20023 Solid biofuels -- Safety of solid biofuel pellets -- Safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applicationsPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsFuel SafetyLinkNote: this standard is "under development" and a draft or abstract has been requested from TC 238. The standard will focus on safe handling and storage of pellet fuels.fuel safety, storage, handling, pellets
ISO/AWI 20024-1 Solid biofuels -- Safety of solid biofuel pellets -- Safe handling and storage in commercial and industrial applications -- Part 1: GeneralPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsFuel SafetyLinkNote: this standard is "under development" and a draft or abstract has been requested from TC 238. The standard will focus on safe handling and storage of biomass pellet fuels in commercial and industrial applications.fuel safety, storage, handling, pellets, commercial, industrial
ISO/AWI 20024-2 Solid biofuels -- Safety of solid biofuel pellets -- Safe handling and storage in commercial and industrial applications -- Part 2: Detection, suppression and management of fire and explosionPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsFuel SafetyLinkNote: this standard is "under development" and a draft or abstract has been requested from TC 238. The standard will focus on safe handling and storage of biomass pellet fuels in commercial and industrial applications with a focus on detection, suppression and management of fire and explosion.fuel safety, storage, handling, pellets, commercial, industrial, explosion, fire safety
ISO/AWI 20048 Solid biofuels -- Determination of off-gassing and oxygen depletionWood
Coal/Peat
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Briquettes
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
Volatile Matter
LinkNote: this standard is "under development" and a draft or abstract has been requested from TC 238. The standard will focus on safe handling and storage of biomass fuels with a focus on off-gassing and oxygen depletion during storage.fuel safety, storage, handling, off-gassing, oxygen depletion
ISO/AWI 20049 Solid biofuels -- Determination of self-heatingCoal/Peat
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Briquettes
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
LinkNote: this standard is "under development" and a draft or abstract has been requested from TC 238. The standard will focus on safe handling and storage of biomass fuels with a focus on determination of self-heating properties during storage.fuel safety, storage, handling, self-heating
ISO/DIS 13065Wood
Charcoal
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Ethanol/Liquid/Gels Fuels
Briquettes
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
LinkThis standard covers a wide range of aspects of bioenergy sustainability. In terms of fuel safety, the standard includes guidelines for hazardous workplace conditionsfuel safety, sustainability, workplace safety
Health and Safety Aspects of Solid Biomass Storage, Transportation and FeedingWood
Charcoal
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Briquettes
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
LinkIEA Bioenergy publication (not a standard) focused on health and safety issues along the supply chain of solid biofuels. Very good resource on background and theory related to biomass safety issues, test methods for determining safety risks, and guidelines for safe storage and handling. Particular focus on pellet fuels.fuel safety, storage, transportation, feeding, explosion
NFPA 70 National Electrical CodeCoal/Peat
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Briquettes
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
LinkMuch of this standard is not relevant. Chapter 5, pg 506 contains standard practice for electrical systems in "Locations for combustible dusts or ignitible fibers/flyings".fuel safety, electrical safety, combustible dust
NFPA 77 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE ON STATIC ELECTRICITYAg Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Briquettes
Fuel SafetyLinkChapter 15 (77-33) contains background and standard methods for mitigating static electric discharge in powder and dust handling facilities.fuel safety, powder, dust, static electricity
NFPA 654: STANDARD FOR THE PREVENTION OF FIRE AND DUST EXPLOSIONS FROM THE MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF COMBUSTIBLE PARTICULATE SOLIDSAg Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Briquettes
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
LinkThis standard presents safety measures to prevent and mitigate fires and dust explosions in facilities that handle combustible particulate solids, which includes combustible dusts, fibers, flocks, flakes, chips, and chunks. Includes chapters on "Fugitive Dust Control and Housekeeping" (8) and "Ignition Sources" (9).fuel safety, dust, explosion, fire safety
NFPA 664: STANDARD FOR THE PREVENTION OF FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS IN WOOD PROCESSING AND WOODWORKING FACILITIESWood
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Briquettes
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
LinkThis is not an ISO standard. This standard provides requirements for fire and explosion prevention and protection of industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities that process wood or manufacture wood products in order to protect life, property, and mission continuity. Relevant sections include "Prevention of Ignition and Control of Ignition Sources" and "Fire Protection".fuel safety, ignition, fire safety, industrial
Directive 94/9/EC on equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (ATEX)Coal/Peat
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Fuel SafetyLinkThe ATEX directive consists of two EU directives describing what equipment and work environment is allowed in an environment with an explosive atmosphere. This standard is widely adopted across Europe, though the document itself doesn't contain a large amount of substantive information.fuel safety, explosion, workplace safety
Health and safety in biomass systems Design and operation guideWood
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
LinkThis is not a standard, however it offers safety design guidelines for commercial and residential biomass heating systems.fuel safety, storage, handling, explosion, commercial, residential
DIN EN 14775:2012-11 Solid biofuels - Determination of ash contentWoodAsh ContentDefines scope, normative references, terms and definitions, apparatus, preparation of test sample, procedures, calculations and precision for determination of ash contentBiofuels, Ash content
CEN/TS 16214-2:2014Sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications - Principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers - Part 2: Conformity assessment including chain of custody and mass balanceWood
Charcoal
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Ethanol/Liquid/Gels Fuels
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)This Technical Specification defines requirements for provision by economic operators of the required evidence that biofuels and bioliquids fulfil the sustainability criteria as defined in the Renewable Energy Directive [1]. This Technical Specification is applicable to the initial biomass production or to the point of collection for waste and residue and to each stage within the chain of custody. It also defines requirements on conformity assessment bodies when checking compliance with the present standard.Biofuels, Biofuels, Chain of custody
EN 16214-3:2012Wood
Charcoal
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Ethanol/Liquid/Gels Fuels
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)This European Standard only defines procedures, criteria and indicators to provide the required evidence for: - production of raw material in areas for nature protection purposes; - harvesting of raw material from highly biodiverse non-natural grassland; and - cultivation and harvesting on peatland. This European Standard specifies requirements relevant for the provision of evidence by economic operators that the production, cultivation and harvesting of raw materials is in accordance with legal or other requirements concerning the areas mentioned above. This European Standard is applicable to production, cultivation and harvesting of biomass for biofuels and bioliquids production.Biofuels, bioliquids, sustainable production
EN 16214-4:2013Wood
Charcoal
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Ethanol/Liquid/Gels Fuels
MiscThis European Standard specifies a detailed methodology that will allow any economic operator in a biofuel or bioliquid chain to calculate the actual GHG emissions associated with its operations in a standardised and transparent manner, taking all materially relevant aspects into account. It includes all steps of the chain from biomass production to the end transport and distribution operations.Biofuels, bioliquids, GHG
CEN/TR 15149-3:2014Solid biofuels - Determination of particle size distribution - Part 3: Rotary screen methodWood
Ag Residue
SizeThis Technical Report specifies a method for the determination of the size distribution of particulate biofuels by the rotary screen method. The method described is meant for particulate biofuels only, namely materials that either have been reduced in size, such as most wood fuels, or are physically in a particulate form e.g. olive stones, nutshells, grain, etc. This document applies to particulate uncompressed fuels with a nominal top size of 3,15 mm and over, e.g. wood chips, hog fuel, olive stones, etc.Wood fuels, agr. residues, size
CEN/TR 15569:2009Solid biofuels - A guide for a quality assurance systemWood
Ag Residue
MiscThis guide has been developed to provide information about the solid biofuel Quality Assurance and presents a methodology that helps operators in the solid biofuels industry design an appropriate Quality Assurance system according to their demands.Solid biomass, agr. residues, quality assurance
EN 14774-1:2009Solid biofuels - Determination of moisture content - Oven dry method - Part 1: Total moisture - Reference methodWoodMoisture ContentThis European Standard describes the method of determining the total moisture content of a sample of solid biofuels by drying in an oven and should be used when high precision of the determination of moisture content is necessary. The method described in this document is applicable to all solid biofuels. The total moisture content of biofuels is not an absolute value and conditions for its determination have to be standardised to enable comparative determinations to be made.Solid biomass, moisture content
EN 14774-2:2009 Solid biofuels - Determination of moisture content - Oven dry method - Part 2: Total moisture - Simplified methodWoodMoisture ContentThis European Standard describes the method of determining the total moisture content of a sample of solid biofuels by drying in an oven and may be used when the highest precision is not needed, e.g. for routine production control on site. The method described in this document is applicable to all solid biofuels. The total moisture content of biofuels is not an absolute value and conditions for its determination have to be standardised to enable comparative determinations to be made.Solid fuels, moisture content
EN 14774-3:2009 Solid biofuels - Determination of moisture content - Oven dry method - Part 3: Moisture in general analysis sampleWoodMoisture ContentThis European Standard describes the method of determining the moisture in the analysis sample by drying the sample in an oven. It is intended to be used for general analysis samples according to CEN/TS 14780.Solid biofuels, moisture content
EN 14775:2009 Solid biofuels - Determination of ash contentWoodAsh ContentThis European Standard specifies a method for the determination of ash content of all solid biofuels (CEN/TS 14588).Solid biofuels, ash content
EN 14778:2011 Solid biofuels - SamplingWood
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
MiscThis European Standard describes methods for preparing sampling plans and certificates and taking samples of solid biofuels, for example, from the place where the raw materials grow, from production plant, from deliveries e.g. lorry loads, or from stock.It includes both manual and mechanical methods, and is applicable to solid biofuels that are either: - fine (particle size up to about 10 mm) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be sampled using a scoop or pipe, for example: sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets; - coarse or irregularly-shaped particulate materials, particle sizes up to about 200 mm that can be sampled using a fork or shovel, for example: wood chips and nut shells, forest residue chips, and straw;Sampling method
EN 14780:2011 Solid biofuels - Sample preparationWoodMiscThis European Standard describes methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory samples and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels. The methods described in this European Standard may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities.Sample preparation
EN 14918:2009 Solid biofuels - Determination of calorific valueHeating Value/Calorific ValueThis European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid biofuel at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid. The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of the combustion products as liquid water.Solid biofuels, calorific value
EN 15103:2009 Solid biofuels - Determination of bulk densityWoodDensity/Bulk DensityThis European Standard describes a method of determining bulk density of solid biofuels by the use of a standard measuring container. This method is applicable to all solid biofuels with a nominal top size of maximum 100 mm. Bulk density is not an absolute value, therefore conditions for its determination have to be standardised in order to gain comparative measuring results.Solid biofuels, bulk density
EN 15148:2009 Solid biofuels - Determination of the content of volatile matterWoodVolatile MatterThis European Standard aims to define the requirements and method used to determine the volatile matter content of solid biofuels. It is intended for persons and organisations that manufacture, plan, sell, erect or use machinery, equipment, tools and entire plants related to solid biofuels, and to all persons and organisations involved in producing, purchasing, selling and utilising solid biofuels. The volatile matter content is determined as the loss in mass, less that due to moisture, when solid biofuel is heated out of contact with air under standardized conditions.Solid biofuel-volatile matter
EN 15148:2009 Solid biofuels - Determination of the content of volatile matterWoodVolatile MatterThis European Standard aims to define the requirements and method used to determine the volatile matter content of solid biofuels.The volatile matter content is determined as the loss in mass, less that due to moisture, when solid biofuel is heated out of contact with air under standardized conditions.Solid biofuels, volatile matter
EN 15150:2011 Solid biofuels - Determination of particle densityWood
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Density/Bulk DensityThis European Standard describes the method for determining the particle density of compressed fuels such as pellets or briquettes. Particle density is not an absolute value and conditions for its determination have to be standardised to enable comparative determinations to be made.Particle density
EN 15210-1:2009 Solid biofuels - Determination of mechanical durability of pellets and briquettes - Part 1: PelletsPellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsMiscThis European Standard aims to define the requirements and method used for testing the mechanical durability of pellets.The durability is the measure of the resistance of densified fuels towards shocks and/or abrasion as a consequence of handling and transportation processes.Pellets, mechanical durability
EN 15210-2:2010 Solid biofuels - Determination of mechanical durability of pellets and briquettes - Part 2: BriquettesBriquettesMiscThis European Standard defines the requirements and method used for testing the mechanical durability of briquettes.The durability is the measure of the resistance of densified fuels towards shocks and/or abrasion as a consequence of handling and transportation processes.Briquettes, mechanical durability
EN 15234-1:2011 Solid biofuels - Fuel quality assurance - Part 1: General requirementsWood
Ag Residue
Value Chain (storage, handling, etc)This European Standard defines the procedures to fulfil the quality requirements (quality control) and describes measures to ensure adequate confidence that the biofuel specification is fulfilled (quality assurance). This European Standard covers the whole chain, from supply of raw materials to point of delivery to the end-user.Quality assurance, value chain
EN 15234-2:2012 Solid biofuels - Fuel quality assurance - Part 2: Wood pellets for non-industrial usePellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsThis European Standard defines the procedures to fulfil the quality requirements (quality control) and describes measures to ensure adequate confidence that the wood pellet specification described in EN 14961-2 is fulfilled (quality assurance). This European Standard covers the production and delivery chain, from purchasing of raw materials to point of delivery to the end-user.Pellets, quality assurance
EN 15234-3:2012BriquettesMiscThis European Standard defines the procedures to fulfil the quality requirements (quality control) and describes measures to ensure adequate confidence that the wood briquette specification described in EN 14961-3 is fulfilled (quality assurance). This European Standard covers the production and delivery chain, from purchasing of raw materials to point of delivery to the end-user.Wood briquettes, quality assurance
EN 15234-4:2012 Solid biofuels - Fuel quality assurance - Part 4: Wood chips for non-industrial usePellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsMiscThis European Standard defines the procedures to fulfil the quality requirements (quality control) and describes measures to ensure adequate confidence that the wood chips specification for non-industrial use as described in EN 14961-4 is fulfilled (quality assurance). This European Standard covers the raw material supply, production and delivery chain, from purchasing of raw materials to point of delivery to the end-user.Wood chips, quality assurance
EN 15234-5:2012WoodMiscThis European Standard defines the procedures to fulfil the quality requirements (quality control) and describes measures to ensure adequate confidence that specification of firewood described in EN 14961-5 is fulfilled (quality assurance). This European Standard covers the raw material supply, production and delivery chain, from purchasing of raw materials to point of delivery to the end-user.Firewood, quality assurance
EN 15234-6:2012 Solid biofuels - Fuel quality assurance - Part 6: Non-woody pellets for non-industrial usePellets/Pressed Logs/ChipsMiscThis European Standard defines the procedures to fulfil the quality requirements (quality control) and describes measures to ensure adequate confidence that the non-woody pellet specification described in EN 14961-6 is fulfilled (quality assurance). This European Standard covers production and delivery chain, from purchasing of raw materials to point of delivery to the end-user.Non-woody pellets, quality assurance
ASTM D1857 Standard Test Method for Fusibility of Coal and Coke AshWood
Charcoal
Coal/Peat
Ag Residue
Pellets/Pressed Logs/Chips
Briquettes
Dung
Melting Point/Transition PointsThis test method covers the observation of the temperatures at which triangular pyramids (cones) prepared from coal and coke ash attain and pass through certain defined stages of fusing and flow when heated at a specified rate in controlled, mildly reducing, and where desired, oxidizing atmospheres.
Ash fusibility temperatures predict whether the ash will perform properly in the process for which the coal was chosen.
ash, ash fusion
ISO 7225 -- Gas cylinders -- Precautionary labelsLPG/BiogasFuel SafetySpecifies labeling for compressed gas cylindersLPG, safety, labels
NFPA 58LPGValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
National Fire Protection Association: LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS CODE. The industry benchmark for safe LP-Gas storage, handling, transportation, and use, NFPA 58 mitigates risks and ensures safe installations, to prevent failures, leaks, and tampering that could lead to fires and explosions.LPG, storage, handling, transportation, use, fires, explosions
OSHA 1926.153LPGValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
Approval of equipment and systems. Each system shall have containers, valves, connectors, manifold valve assemblies, and regulators of an approved type. All cylinders shall meet the Department of Transportation specification identification requirements published in 49 CFR Part 178, Shipping Container Specifications.

"Definition." As used in this section, "Containers" - All vessels, such as tanks, cylinders, or drums, used for transportation or storing liquefied petroleum gases.
LPG, cylinders, valve, liquefied petroleum gas
ASTM D1835 - 13LPGValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
This specification covers liquefied petroleum gases consisting of propane, propene (propylene), butane, and mixtures of these materials. The products are intended for use as domestic, commercial and industrial heating, and engine fuels. Care must be taken to in sampling of the liquefied gases for test results to be significant. All four types of liquefied petroleum gases covered by this specification should conform to the specified requirements for vapor pressure, volatile residue, residue matter, relative density, and corrosion.
ASTM D2598 - 12 - Standard Practice for Calculation of Certain Physical Properties of Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases from Compositional AnalysisLPGDensity/Bulk Density
Chemical Composition
Chemical Additives
Volatile Matter
his practice covers, by compositional analysis, the approximate determination of the following physical characteristics of commercial propane, special-duty propane, commercial propane/butane mixtures, and commercial butane (covered by Specification D1835): vapor pressure, relative density, and motor octane number (MON).
ASTM D2158 - 11- Standard Test Method for Residues in Liquefied Petroleum (LP) GasesLPGValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Laboratory Testing
Control over the residue content (required by Specification D1835) is of considerable importance in end-use applications of LPG. In liquid feed systems residues can lead to troublesome deposits and, in vapor withdrawal systems, residues that are carried over can foul regulating equipment. Those that remain will accumulate, can be corrosive, and will contaminate following product. Water, particularly if alkaline, can cause failure of regulating equipment and corrosion of metals.
ISO 5995:2006(en) Gas cylinders — Specifications and testing of LPG cylinder valves — Manually operatedLPGValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Laboratory Testing
This International Standard specifies the requirements for design, specification and type testing of dedicated LPG manually operated cylinder valves specifically for use with transportable refillable LPG cylinders from 0,5 l up to 150 l water capacity. It includes references to associated equipment for vapour or liquid service.
ISO 0691:2004(en) Gas cylinders — Refillable welded steel cylinders for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) — Procedures for checking before, during and after fillingLPGValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
This International Standard specifies the procedures to be adopted when checking transportable refillable welded steel LPG cylinders before, during and after filling.
It applies to transportable refillable welded steel LPG cylinders of water capacity from 0,5 I up to and including 1501.
It does not apply to cylinders permanently installed in vehicles, or to plant and filling equipment.
ISO 2928:2003(en) Rubber hoses and hose assemblies for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in the liquid or gaseous phase and natural gas up to 25 bar (2,5 MPa) — SpecificationLPGValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)This International Standard specifies requirements for rubber hoses and rubber hose assemblies used for the transfer of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in the liquid or gaseous phase and natural gas and designed for use at working pressures ranging from vacuum to a maximum of 25 bar (2,5 MPa) within the temperature range -30 °C to +70 °C or, for low-temperature hoses (designated -LT), within the temperature range -50 °C to +70 °C.
AS/NZS 1596:2014 The storage and handling of LP GasLPGValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Fuel Safety
Sets out requirements and recommendations for the safe storage and handling of LP Gas, in cylinders and bulk tanks. Sets out requirements for design, construction, commissioning and operation of installations for the storage and handling of LP Gas. Separate sections deal with above-ground and underground tanks, piping systems, cylinders and their locations, automotive filling installations, and operations. Appendices cover emergency plans, refuelling, fire protection, impact protection, leakage testing, hazardous areas, driver instructions and the transport and location of exchange cylinders.
IS 4576 (1999): Liquefied Petroleum GasesLPGLaboratory TestingThis standard prescribes the requirements and methods of sampling and test for all types of liquefied petroleum gases commercially marked for household, commercial and industrial applications excluding automotive use.
ISO 5985:2014(en) Plastics — Determination of the ultimate anaerobic biodegradation under high-solids anaerobic-digestion conditions — Method by analysis of released biogasBiogasValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Misc
Laboratory Testing
This International Standard specifies a method for the evaluation of the ultimate anaerobic biodegradability of plastics based on organic compounds under high-solids anaerobic-digestion conditions by measurement of evolved biogas at the end of the test. This method is designed to simulate typical anaerobic digestion conditions for the organic fraction of mixed municipal solid waste. The test material is exposed in a laboratory test to a methanogenic inoculum derived from anaerobic digesters operating only on pretreated household waste. The anaerobic decomposition takes place under high-solids (more than 20 % total solids) and static non-mixed conditions. The test method is designed to yield the percentage of carbon in the test material and its rate of conversion to evolved carbon dioxide and methane (biogas).
The conditions described in this International Standard might not always correspond to the optimum conditions for the maximum degree of biodegradation to occur.
ISO 1734:1995(en) Water quality — Evaluation of the "ultimate" anaerobic biodegradability of organic compounds in digested sludge — Method by measurement of the biogas productionBiogasValue Chain (storage, handling, etc)
Misc
Laboratory Testing
This International Standard specifies a screening method for the evaluation of the biodegradability of organic compounds at a given concentration by anaerobic microorganisms. The conditions described in this test do not necessarily correspond to the optimal conditions allowing the maximum value of biodegradation to occur, since a dilute sludge is used with a relatively high concentration of test chemical. The test allows exposure of sludge to the chemical for a period of up to 60 d, which is longer than the normal sludge retention time (25 d to 30 d) in anaerobic digesters, though digesters at industrial sites can have much longer retention times.
The method applies to organic compounds with a known carbon content and which are
— soluble in water;
— poorly soluble in water, provided that a method of exact dosing is applicable;
— not inhibitory to the test microorganisms at the concentration chosen for the test; inhibitory effects can be determined in separate tests or by an additional inhibition assay.
For volatile substances a case by case decision is necessary. Some can be tested if handled with special care, for example no release of gas during the test.

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